2020 Vol. 9, No. 1

Acousto-optic modulation of photonic bound state in the continuum
Zejie Yu, Xiankai Sun
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 33-41 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0231-1
Photonic bound states in the continuum (BICs) have recently been studied in various systems and have found wide applications in sensors, lasers, and filters. Applying BICs in photonic integrated circuits enables low-loss light guidance and routing in low-refractive-index waveguides on high-refractive-index substrates, which opens a new avenue for integrated photonics with functional single-crystal materials. Here, we demonstrate high-quality integrated lithium niobate microcavities inside which the photonic BIC modes circulate and further modulate these BIC modes acoustooptically by using piezoelectrically actuated surface acoustic waves at microwave frequencies. With a high acoustooptic modulation frequency, the acousto-optic coupling is well situated in the resolved-sideband regime. This leads to coherent coupling between microwave and optical photons, which is exhibited by the observed electro-acoustooptically induced transparency and absorption. Therefore, our devices serve as a paradigm for manipulating and controlling photonic BICs on a chip, which will enable many other applications of photonic BICs in the areas of microwave photonics and quantum information processing.
Experimental proof of Joule heating-induced switched-back regions in OLEDs
Anton Kirch, Axel Fischer, Matthias Liero, Jürgen Fuhrmann, Annegret Glitzky, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 42-51 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0236-9
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have become a major pixel technology in the display sector, with products spanning the entire range of current panel sizes. The ability to freely scale the active area to large and random surfaces paired with flexible substrates provides additional application scenarios for OLEDs in the general lighting, automotive, and signage sectors. These applications require higher brightness and, thus, current density operation compared to the specifications needed for general displays. As extended transparent electrodes pose a significant ohmic resistance, OLEDs suffering from Joule self-heating exhibit spatial inhomogeneities in electrical potential, current density, and hence luminance. In this article, we provide experimental proof of the theoretical prediction that OLEDs will display regions of decreasing luminance with increasing driving current. With a two-dimensional OLED model, we can conclude that these regions are switched back locally in voltage as well as current due to insufficient lateral thermal coupling. Experimentally, we demonstrate this effect in lab-scale devices and derive that it becomes more severe with increasing pixel size, which implies its significance for large-area, high-brightness use cases of OLEDs. Equally, these non-linear switching effects cannot be ignored with respect to the long-term operation and stability of OLEDs; in particular, they might be important for the understanding of sudden-death scenarios.
Diabolical points in coupled active cavities with quantum emitters
Jingnan Yang, Chenjiang Qian, Xin Xie, Kai Peng, Shiyao Wu, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 52-59 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0244-9
In single microdisks, embedded active emitters intrinsically affect the cavity modes of the microdisks, resulting in trivial symmetric backscattering and low controllability. Here we demonstrate macroscopic control of the backscattering direction by optimizing the cavity size. The signature of the positive and negative backscattering directions in each single microdisk is confirmed with two strongly coupled microdisks. Furthermore, diabolical points are achieved at the resonance of the two microdisks, which agrees well with theoretical calculations considering the backscattering directions. Diabolical points in active optical structures pave the way for an implementation of quantum information processing with geometric phase in quantum photonic networks.
Measuring a dynamical topological order parameter in quantum walks
Xiao-Ye Xu, Qin-Qin Wang, Markus Heyl, Jan Carl Budich, Wei-Wei Pan, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 60-70 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0237-8
Quantum processes of inherent dynamical nature, such as quantum walks, defy a description in terms of an equilibrium statistical physics ensemble. Until now, identifying the general principles behind the underlying unitary quantum dynamics has remained a key challenge. Here, we show and experimentally observe that split-step quantum walks admit a characterization in terms of a dynamical topological order parameter (DTOP). This integer-quantized DTOP measures, at a given time, the winding of the geometric phase accumulated by the wavefunction during a quantum walk. We observe distinct dynamical regimes in our experimentally realized quantum walks, and each regime can be attributed to a qualitatively different temporal behavior of the DTOP. Upon identifying an equivalent manybody problem, we reveal an intriguing connection between the nonanalytic changes of the DTOP in quantum walks and the occurrence of dynamical quantum phase transitions.
Parallelized volumetric fluorescence microscopy with a reconfigurable coded incoherent light-sheet array
Yu-Xuan Ren, Jianglai Wu, Queenie T. K. Lai, Hei Ming Lai, Dickson M. D. Siu, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 71-81 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0245-8
Parallelized fluorescence imaging has been a long-standing pursuit that can address the unmet need for a comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) visualization of dynamical biological processes with minimal photodamage. However, the available approaches are limited to incomplete parallelization in only two dimensions or sparse sampling in three dimensions. We hereby develop a novel fluorescence imaging approach, called coded light-sheet array microscopy (CLAM), which allows complete parallelized 3D imaging without mechanical scanning. Harnessing the concept of an "infinity mirror", CLAM generates a light-sheet array with controllable sheet density and degree of coherence. Thus, CLAM circumvents the common complications of multiple coherent light-sheet generation in terms of dedicated wavefront engineering and mechanical dithering/scanning. Moreover, the encoding of multiplexed optical sections in CLAM allows the synchronous capture of all sectioned images within the imaged volume. We demonstrate the utility of CLAM in different imaging scenarios, including a light-scattering medium, an optically cleared tissue, and microparticles in fluidic flow. CLAM can maximize the signal-to-noise ratio and the spatial duty cycle, and also provides a further reduction in photobleaching compared to the major scanning-based 3D imaging systems. The flexible implementation of CLAM regarding both hardware and software ensures compatibility with any light-sheet imaging modality and could thus be instrumental in a multitude of areas in biological research.
Raman lasing and soliton mode-locking in lithium niobate microresonators
Mengjie Yu, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Rebecca Cheng, Cheng Wang, Mian Zhang, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 82-88 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0246-7
The recent advancement in lithium-niobite-on-insulator (LNOI) technology is opening up new opportunities in optoelectronics, as devices with better performance, lower power consumption and a smaller footprint can be realised due to the high optical confinement in the structures. The LNOI platform offers both large χ(2) and χ(3) nonlinearities along with the power of dispersion engineering, enabling brand new nonlinear photonic devices and applications for the next generation of integrated photonic circuits. However, Raman scattering and its interaction with other nonlinear processes have not been extensively studied in dispersion-engineered LNOI nanodevices. In this work, we characterise the Raman radiation spectra in a monolithic lithium niobate (LN) microresonator via selective excitation of Raman-active phonon modes. The dominant mode for the Raman oscillation is observed in the backward direction for a continuous-wave pump threshold power of 20?mW with a high differential quantum efficiency of 46%. We explore the effects of Raman scattering on Kerr optical frequency comb generation. We achieve mode-locked states in an X-cut LNOI chip through sufficient suppression of the Raman effect via cavity geometry control. Our analysis of the Raman effect provides guidance for the development of future chip-based photonic devices on the LNOI platform.
Active sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light with a cascaded tunable resonator
Shibiao Wei, Stuart K. Earl, Jiao Lin, Shan Shan Kou, Xiao-Cong Yuan
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 89-98 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0243-x
The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light has been shown to be useful in diverse fields ranging from astronomy and optical trapping to optical communications and data storage. However, one of the primary impediments preventing such applications from widespread adoption is the lack of a straightforward and dynamic method to sort incident OAM states without altering the states. Here, we report a technique that can dynamically filter individual OAM states and preserve the incident OAM states for subsequent processing. Although the working principle of this technique is based on resonance, the device operation is not limited to a particular wavelength. OAM states with different wavelengths can resonate in the resonator without any additional modulation other than changing the length of the cavity. Consequently, we are able to demonstrate a reconfigurable OAM sorter that is constructed by cascading such optical resonators. This approach does not require specially designed components and is readily amenable to integration into potential applications.
Super-resolution fluorescence-assisted diffraction computational tomography reveals the three-dimensional landscape of the cellular organelle interactome
Dashan Dong, Xiaoshuai Huang, Liuju Li, Heng Mao, Yanquan Mo, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 99-113 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0249-4
The emergence of super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy has rejuvenated the search for new cellular sub-structures. However, SR fluorescence microscopy achieves high contrast at the expense of a holistic view of the interacting partners and surrounding environment. Thus, we developed SR fluorescence-assisted diffraction computational tomography (SR-FACT), which combines label-free three-dimensional optical diffraction tomography (ODT) with two-dimensional fluorescence Hessian structured illumination microscopy. The ODT module is capable of resolving the mitochondria, lipid droplets, the nuclear membrane, chromosomes, the tubular endoplasmic reticulum, and lysosomes. Using dual-mode correlated live-cell imaging for a prolonged period of time, we observed novel subcellular structures named dark-vacuole bodies, the majority of which originate from densely populated perinuclear regions, and intensively interact with organelles such as the mitochondria and the nuclear membrane before ultimately collapsing into the plasma membrane. This work demonstrates the unique capabilities of SR-FACT, which suggests its wide applicability in cell biology in general.
Intelligent control of mode-locked femtosecond pulses by time-stretch-assisted real-time spectral analysis
Guoqing Pu, Lilin Yi, Li Zhang, Chao Luo, Zhaohui Li, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 114-121 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0251-x
Mode-locked fiber lasers based on nonlinear polarization evolution can generate femtosecond pulses with different pulse widths and rich spectral distributions for versatile applications through polarization tuning. However, a precise and repeatable location of a specific pulsation regime is extremely challenging. Here, by using fast spectral analysis based on a time-stretched dispersion Fourier transform as the spectral discrimination criterion, along with an intelligent polarization search algorithm, for the first time, we achieved real-time control of the spectral width and shape of mode-locked femtosecond pulses; the spectral width can be tuned from 10 to 40 nm with a resolution of ~1.47 nm, and the spectral shape can be programmed to be hyperbolic secant or triangular. Furthermore, we reveal the complex, repeatable transition dynamics of the spectrum broadening of femtosecond pulses, including five middle phases, which provides deep insight into ultrashort pulse formation that cannot be observed with traditional mode-locked lasers.
Spectral absorption control of femtosecond laser-treated metals and application in solar-thermal devices
Sohail A. Jalil, Bo Lai, Mohamed ElKabbash, Jihua Zhang, Erik M. Garcell, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 122-130 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0242-y
Direct femtosecond (fs) laser processing is a maskless fabrication technique that can effectively modify the optical, electrical, mechanical, and tribological properties of materials for a wide range of potential applications. However, the eventual implementation of fs-laser-treated surfaces in actual devices remains challenging because it is difficult to precisely control the surface properties. Previous studies of the morphological control of fs-laser-processed surfaces mostly focused on enhancing the uniformity of periodic microstructures. Here, guided by the plasmon hybridisation model, we control the morphology of surface nanostructures to obtain more control over spectral light absorption. We experimentally demonstrate spectral control of a variety of metals [copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), steel and tungsten (W)], resulting in the creation of broadband light absorbers and selective solar absorbers (SSAs). For the first time, we demonstrate that fs-laser-produced surfaces can be used as high-temperature SSAs. We show that a tungsten selective solar absorber (W-SSA) exhibits excellent performance as a high-temperature solar receiver. When integrated into a solar thermoelectric generation (TEG) device, W-SSA provides a 130% increase in solar TEG efficiency compared to untreated W, which is commonly used as an intrinsic selective light absorber.
Ultralow-loss geometric phase and polarization shaping by ultrafast laser writing in silica glass
Masaaki Sakakura, Yuhao Lei, Lei Wang, Yan-Hao Yu, Peter G. Kazansky
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 141-150 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0250-y
Polarization and geometric phase shaping via a space-variant anisotropy has attracted considerable interest for fabrication of flat optical elements and generation of vector beams with applications in various areas of science and technology. Among the methods for anisotropy patterning, imprinting of self-assembled nanograting structures in silica glass by femtosecond laser writing is promising for the fabrication of space-variant birefringent optics with high thermal and chemical durability and high optical damage threshold. However, a drawback is the optical loss due to the light scattering by nanograting structures, which has limited the application. Here, we report a new type of ultrafast laser-induced modification in silica glass, which consists of randomly distributed nanopores elongated in the direction perpendicular to the polarization, providing controllable birefringent structures with transmittance as high as 99% in the visible and near-infrared ranges and >90% in the UV range down to 330 nm. The observed anisotropic nanoporous silica structures are fundamentally different from the femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings and conventional nanoporous silica. A mechanism of nanocavitation via interstitial oxygen generation mediated by multiphoton and avanlanche defect ionization is proposed. We demonstrate ultralow-loss geometrical phase optical elements, including geometrical phase prism and lens, and a vector beam convertor in silica glass.
Tailoring spontaneous infrared emission of HgTe quantum dots with laser-printed plasmonic arrays
A. A. Sergeev, D. V. Pavlov, A. A. Kuchmizhak, M. V. Lapine, W. K. Yiu, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 131-140 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0247-6
Chemically synthesized near-infrared to mid-infrared (IR) colloidal quantum dots (QDs) offer a promising platform for the realization of devices including emitters, detectors, security, and sensor systems. However, at longer wavelengths, the quantum yield of such QDs decreases as the radiative emission rate drops following Fermi's golden rule, while non-radiative recombination channels compete with light emission. Control over the radiative and non-radiative channels of the IR-emitting QDs is crucially important to improve the performance of IR-range devices. Here, we demonstrate strong enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of near- to mid-IR HgTe QDs coupled to periodically arranged plasmonic nanoantennas, in the form of nanobumps, produced on the surface of glass-supported Au films via ablation-free direct femtosecond laser printing. The enhancement is achieved by simultaneous radiative coupling of the emission that spectrally matches the first-order lattice resonance of the arrays, as well as more efficient photoluminescence excitation provided by coupling of the pump radiation to the local surface plasmon resonances of the isolated nanoantennas. Moreover, coupling of the HgTe QDs to the lattice plasmons reduces the influence of non-radiative decay losses mediated by the formation of polarons formed between QD surface-trapped carriers and the IR absorption bands of dodecanethiol used as a ligand on the QDs, allowing us to improve the shape of the emission spectrum through a reduction in the spectral dip related to this ligand coupling. Considering the ease of the chemical synthesis and processing of the HgTe QDs combined with the scalability of the direct laser fabrication of nanoantennas with tailored plasmonic responses, our results provide an important step towards the design of IR-range devices for various applications.
Broadband 200-nm second-harmonic generation in silicon in the telecom band
Neetesh Singh, Manan Raval, Alfonso Ruocco, Michael R. Watts
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 151-157 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0254-7
Silicon is well known for its strong third-order optical nonlinearity, exhibiting efficient supercontinuum and four-wave mixing processes. A strong second-order effect that is naturally inhibited in silicon can also be observed, for example, by electrically breaking the inversion symmetry and quasi-phase matching the pump and the signal. To generate an efficient broadband second-harmonic signal, however, the most promising technique requires matching the group velocities of the pump and the signal. In this work, we utilize dispersion engineering of a silicon waveguide to achieve group velocity matching between the pump and the signal, along with an additional degree of freedom to broaden the second harmonic through the strong third-order nonlinearity. We demonstrate that the strong self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation in silicon help broaden the second harmonic by 200 nm in the O-band. Furthermore, we show a waveguide design that can be used to generate a second-harmonic signal in the entire near-infrared region. Our work paves the way for various applications, such as efficient and broadband complementary-metal oxide semiconductor based on—chip frequency synthesizers, entangled photon pair generators, and optical parametric oscillators.
Carrier-assisted differential detection
William Shieh, Chuanbowen Sun, Honglin Ji
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 158-166 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0253-8
To overcome power fading induced by chromatic dispersion in optical fiber communications, optical field recovery is a promising solution for direct detection short-reach applications, such as fast-evolving data center interconnects (DCIs). To date, various direct detection schemes capable of optical field recovery have been proposed, including Kramers-Kronig (KK) and signal-signal beat interference (SSBI) iterative cancellation (IC) receivers. However, they are all restricted to the single sideband (SSB) modulation format, thus conspicuously losing half of the electrical spectral efficiency (SE) compared with double sideband (DSB) modulation. Additionally, SSB suffers from the noise folding issue, requiring a precise optical filter that complicates the receiver design. As such, it is highly desirable to investigate the field recovery of DSB signals via direct detection. In this paper, for the first time, we propose a novel receiver scheme called carrier-assisted differential detection (CADD) to realize optical field recovery of complex-valued DSB signals via direct detection. First, CADD doubles the electrical SE compared with the KK and SSBI IC receivers by adopting DSB modulation without sacrificing receiver sensitivities. Furthermore, by using direct detection without needing a precise receiver optical filter, CADD can employ cost-effective uncooled lasers as opposed to expensive temperature-controlled lasers in coherent systems. Our proposed receiver architecture opens a new class of direct detection schemes that are suitable for photonic integration analogous to homodyne receivers in coherent detection.
Electrically controlled white laser emission through liquid crystal/polymer multiphases
Alina Adamow, Adam Szukalski, Lech Sznitko, Luana Persano, Dario Pisignano, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 167-175 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0252-9
White lasers are becoming increasingly relevant in various fields since they exhibit unprecedented properties in terms of beam brightness and intensity modulation. Here we introduce a white laser based on a polymer matrix encompassing liquid crystals and multiple organic chromophores in a multifunctional phase-separation system. The separation of the hydrophilic matrix and the hydrophobic liquid crystals leads to the formation of a complex optically active layer, featuring lasing emission tuneable from blue to red. White laser emission is found with an optical excitation threshold of approximately 12 mJ/cm2. Importantly, an external electric field can be used to control the device emission intensity. White lasers with low-voltage (≤10 V) controllable emission might pave the way for a new generation of broadband light sources for analytical, computational, and communication applications.
An ultra-compact particle size analyser using a CMOS image sensor and machine learning
Rubaiya Hussain, Mehmet Alican Noyan, Getinet Woyessa, Rodrigo R. Retamal Marín, Pedro Antonio Martinez, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 176-186 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0255-6
Light scattering is a fundamental property that can be exploited to create essential devices such as particle analysers. The most common particle size analyser relies on measuring the angle-dependent diffracted light from a sample illuminated by a laser beam. Compared to other non-light-based counterparts, such a laser diffraction scheme offers precision, but it does so at the expense of size, complexity and cost. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a new particle size analyser in a collimated beam configuration using a consumer electronic camera and machine learning. The key novelty is a small form factor angular spatial filter that allows for the collection of light scattered by the particles up to predefined discrete angles. The filter is combined with a light-emitting diode and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor image sensor array to acquire angularly resolved scattering images. From these images, a machine learning model predicts the volume median diameter of the particles. To validate the proposed device, glass beads with diameters ranging from 13 to 125 µm were measured in suspension at several concentrations. We were able to correct for multiple scattering effects and predict the particle size with mean absolute percentage errors of 5.09% and 2.5% for the cases without and with concentration as an input parameter, respectively. When only spherical particles were analysed, the former error was significantly reduced (0.72%). Given that it is compact (on the order of ten cm) and built with low-cost consumer electronics, the newly designed particle size analyser has significant potential for use outside a standard laboratory, for example, in online and in-line industrial process monitoring.
High-security-level multi-dimensional optical storage medium: nanostructured glass embedded with LiGa5O8:Mn2+ with photostimulated luminescence
Shisheng Lin, Hang Lin, Chonggeng Ma, Yao Cheng, Sizhe Ye, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 187-196 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0258-3
The launch of the big data era puts forward challenges for information preservation technology, both in storage capacity and security. Herein, a brand new optical storage medium, transparent glass ceramic (TGC) embedded with photostimulated LiGa5O8:Mn2+ nanocrystals, capable of achieving bit-by-bit optical data write-in and read-out in a photon trapping/detrapping mode, is developed. The highly ordered nanostructure enables light–matter interaction with high encoding/decoding resolution and low bit error rate. Importantly, going beyond traditional 2D optical storage, the high transparency of the studied bulk medium makes 3D volumetric optical data storage (ODS) possible, which brings about the merits of expanded storage capacity and improved information security. Demonstration application confirmed the erasable–rewritable 3D storage of binary data and display items in TGC with intensity/wavelength multiplexing. The present work highlights a great leap in photostimulated material for ODS application and hopefully stimulates the development of new multi-dimensional ODS media.
Spin-preserving chiral photonic crystal mirror
Behrooz Semnani, Jeremy Flannery, Rubayet Al Maruf, Michal Bajcsy
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 197-208 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0256-5
Chirality refers to a geometric phenomenon in which objects are not superimposable on their mirror image. Structures made of nanoscale chiral elements can exhibit chiroptical effects, such as dichroism for left- and right-handed circularly polarized light, which makes these structures highly suitable for applications ranging from quantum information processing and quantum optics to circular dichroism spectroscopy and molecular recognition. At the same time, strong chiroptical effects have been challenging to achieve even in synthetic optical media, and chiroptical effects for light with normal incidence have been speculated to be prohibited in thin, lossless quasi-two-dimensional structures. Here, we report an experimental realization of a giant chiroptical effect in a thin monolithic photonic crystal mirror. Unlike conventional mirrors, our mirror selectively reflects only one spin state of light while preserving its handedness, with a near-unity level of circular dichroism. The operational principle of the photonic crystal mirror relies on guided-mode resonance (GMR) with a simultaneous excitation of leaky transverse electric (TE-like) and transverse magnetic (TM-like) Bloch modes in the photonic crystal slab. Such modes are not reliant on the suppression of radiative losses through long-range destructive interference, and even small areas of the photonic crystal exhibit robust circular dichroism. Despite its simplicity, the mirror strongly outperforms earlier reported structures and, contrary to a prevailing notion, demonstrates that near-unity reflectivity contrast for opposite helicities is achievable in a quasi-two-dimensional structure.
News & Views
A Trojan Horse for live-cell super-resolution microscopy
Gerti Beliu, Markus Sauer
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 8-9 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0238-7
New peptide vehicles enable the efficient live-cell labeling of intracellular organelles with cell-impermeable fluorescent probes by simple coincubation, paving the way for refined multicolor super-resolution fluorescence imaging.
Chiral emission and Purcell enhancement in a hybrid plasmonic-photonic microresonator
Qi-Tao Cao, You-Ling Chen, Yun-Feng Xiao
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 10-11 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0241-z
A high-Q hybrid plasmonic-photonic microresonator, which consists of a dielectric microdisk hybridized with a plasmonic nanoantenna dimer, enables an enlarged local density of states of the optical field and chiral propagation of photons inside the cavity.
Nanolaminate-based design for UV laser mirror coatings
Meiping Zhu, Nuo Xu, Behshad Roshanzadeh, S.T.P. Boyd, Wolfgang Rudolph, et al.
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 12-17 doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-0257-4
With ever-increasing laser power, the requirements for ultraviolet (UV) coatings increase continuously. The fundamental challenge for UV laser-resistant mirror coatings is to simultaneously exhibit a high reflectivity with a large bandwidth and high laser resistance. These characteristics are traditionally achieved by the deposition of laser-resistant layers on highly reflective layers. We propose a preflectivity and laser resistance in oneq design by using tunable nanolaminate layers that serve as an effective layer with a high refractive index and a large optical bandgap. An Al2O3-HfO2 nanolaminate-based mirror coating for UV laser applications is experimentally demonstrated using e-beam deposition. The bandwidth, over which the reflectance is > 99.5%, is more than twice that of a traditional mirror with a comparable overall thickness. The laser-induced damage threshold is increased by a factor of ~1.3 for 7.6 ns pulses at a wavelength of 355 nm. This tunable, nanolaminate-based new design strategy paves the way toward a new generation of UV coatings for high-power laser applications.
Review Article
Optothermal dynamics in whispering-gallery microresonators
Xuefeng Jiang, Lan Yang
Published. 2020, 9(1) : 18-32 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0239-6
Optical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators with ultrahigh quality factors and small mode volumes have played an important role in modern physics. They have been demonstrated as a diverse platform for a wide range of applications in photonics, such as nonlinear optics, optomechanics, quantum optics, and information processing. Thermal behaviors induced by power build-up in the resonators or environmental perturbations are ubiquitous in high-quality-factor whispering-gallery-mode resonators and have played an important role in their operation for various applications. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of laser-field-induced thermal nonlinear effects, including thermal bistability and thermal oscillation. With the help of the thermal bistability effect, optothermal spectroscopy and optical nonreciprocity have been demonstrated. By tuning the temperature of the environment, the resonant mode frequency will shift, which can also be used for thermal sensing/tuning applications. The thermal locking technique and thermal imaging mechanisms are discussed briefly. Finally, we review some techniques employed to achieve thermal stability in a high-quality-factor resonator system.