2019 Vol. 8, No. 1

Probing 10 μK stability and residual drifts in the cross-polarized dual-mode stabilization of single-crystal ultrahigh-Q optical resonators
Jinkang Lim, Wei Liang, Anatoliy A. Savchenkov, Andrey B. Matsko, Lute Maleki, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 35-43 doi: 10.1038/s41377-018-0109-7
The thermal stability of monolithic optical microresonators is essential for many mesoscopic photonic applications such as ultrastable laser oscillators, photonic microwave clocks, and precision navigation and sensing. Their fundamental performance is largely bounded by thermal instability. Sensitive thermal monitoring can be achieved by utilizing cross-polarized dual-mode beat frequency metrology, determined by the polarization-dependent thermorefractivity of a single-crystal microresonator, wherein the heterodyne radio-frequency beat pins down the optical mode volume temperature for precision stabilization. Here, we investigate the correlation between the dual-mode beat frequency and the resonator temperature with time and the associated spectral noise of the dual-mode beat frequency in a single-crystal ultrahigh-Q MgF2 resonator to illustrate that dual-mode frequency metrology can potentially be utilized for resonator temperature stabilization reaching the fundamental thermal noise limit in a realistic system. We show a resonator long-term temperature stability of 8.53 μK after stabilization and unveil various sources that hinder the stability from reaching sub-μK in the current system, an important step towards compact precision navigation, sensing, and frequency reference architectures.
"Plasmonics" in free space: observation of giant wavevectors, vortices, and energy backflow in superoscillatory optical fields
Guanghui Yuan, Edward T. F. Rogers, Nikolay I. Zheludev
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 44-52 doi: 10.1038/s41377-018-0112-z
Evanescent light can be localized at the nanoscale by resonant absorption in a plasmonic nanoparticle or taper or by transmission through a nanohole. However, a conventional lens cannot focus free-space light beyond half of the wavelength λ. Nevertheless, precisely tailored interference of multiple waves can form a hotspot in free space of an arbitrarily small size, which is known as superoscillation. Here, we report a new type of integrated metasurface interferometry that allows for the first time mapping of fields with a deep subwavelength resolution ~λ/100. The findings reveal that an electromagnetic field near the superoscillatory hotspot has many features similar to those found near resonant plasmonic nanoparticles or nanoholes: the hotspots are surrounded by nanoscale phase singularities and zones where the phase of the superoscillatory field changes more than tenfold faster than a free-propagating plane wave. Areas with high local wavevectors are pinned to phase vortices and zones of energy backflow (~λ/20 in size) that contribute to tightening of the main focal spot size beyond the Abbe–Rayleigh limit. Our observations reveal some analogy between plasmonic nanofocusing of evanescent waves and superoscillatory nanofocusing of free-space waves and prove the fundamental link between superoscillations and superfocusing, offering new opportunities for nanoscale metrology and imaging.
Interference-assisted kaleidoscopic meta-plexer for arbitrary spin-wavefront manipulation
He-Xiu Xu, Guangwei Hu, Ying Li, Lei Han, Jianlin Zhao, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 53-62 doi: 10.1038/s41377-018-0113-y
Achieving simultaneous polarization and wavefront control, especially circular polarization with the auxiliary degree of freedom of light and spin angular momentum, is of fundamental importance in many optical applications. Interferences are typically undesirable in highly integrated photonic circuits and metasurfaces. Here, we propose an interference-assisted metasurface-multiplexer (meta-plexer) that counterintuitively exploits constructive and destructive interferences between hybrid meta-atoms and realizes independent spin-selective wavefront manipulation. Such kaleidoscopic meta-plexers are experimentally demonstrated via two types of single-layer spin-wavefront multiplexers that are composed of spatially rotated anisotropic meta-atoms. One type generates a spin-selective Bessel-beam wavefront for spin-down light and a low scattering cross-section for stealth for spin-up light. The other type demonstrates versatile control of the vortex wavefront, which is also characterized by the orbital angular momentum of light, with frequency-switchable numbers of beams under linearly polarized wave excitation. Our findings offer a distinct interference-assisted concept for realizing advanced multifunctional photonics with arbitrary and independent spin-wavefront features. A variety of applications can be readily anticipated in optical diodes, isolators, and spin-Hall meta-devices without cascading bulky optical elements.
Pd films on soft substrates: a visual, high-contrast and low-cost optical hydrogen sensor
Xiaoyi She, Yang Shen, Jianfang Wang, Chongjun Jin
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 63-72 doi: 10.1038/s41377-018-0114-x
For the rapid development of the hydrogen economy, a reliable and low-cost hydrogen sensor appears to be extremely important. Here, we first show that a palladium film deposited on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) can obtain an exceedingly high-reflectance contrast of 25.78 over the entire visible band upon exposure to 4 vol% hydrogen gas (H2) mixed with nitrogen gas. This high-reflectance contrast results from the surface deformation induced by the volume inflation after exposure to H2, leading to the transition of the near-specular surface to a diffusing surface. In addition, a change in brightness is readable by naked eye upon exposure to H2 with various concentrations from 0.6 to 1 vol% under the illumination of a fluorescent tube. Furthermore, this sensor possesses an excellent recyclability and quick response time of a few seconds. Compared with Pd nanostructure-based hydrogen sensors, this visual, high-contrast and low-cost sensor is of great potential for practical hydrogen sensing.
Nanophotonics of higher-plant photosynthetic membranes
A. Capretti, A. K. Ringsmuth, J. F. van Velzen, A. Rosnik, R. Croce, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 73-85 doi: 10.1038/s41377-018-0116-8
The thylakoid membrane inside chloroplasts hosts the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Its embedded protein complexes are responsible for light harvesting, excitation energy transfer, charge separation, and transport. In higher plants, when the illumination conditions vary, the membrane adapts its composition and nanoscale morphology, which is characterized by appressed and non-appressed regions known as grana and stroma lamellae, respectively. Here we investigate the nanophotonic regime of light propagation in chloroplasts of higher plants and identify novel mechanisms in the optical response of the thylakoid membrane. Our results indicate that the relative contributions of light scattering and absorption to the overall optical response of grana strongly depend on the concentration of the light-harvesting complexes. For the pigment concentrations typically found in chloroplasts, the two mechanisms have comparable strengths, and their relative value can be tuned by variations in the protein composition or in the granal diameter. Furthermore, we find that collective modes in ensembles of grana significantly increase light absorption at selected wavelengths, even in the presence of moderate biological disorder. Small variations in the granal separation or a large disorder can dismantle this collective response. We propose that chloroplasts use this mechanism as a strategy against dangerously high illumination conditions, triggering a transition to low-absorbing states. We conclude that the morphological separation of the thylakoid membrane in higher plants supports strong nanophotonic effects, which may be used by chloroplasts to regulate light absorption. This adaptive self-organization capability is of interest as a model for novel bioinspired optical materials for artificial photosynthesis, imaging, and sensing.
Spatiotemporal continuum generation in polariton waveguides
Paul M. Walker, Charles E. Whittaker, Dmitry V. Skryabin, Emiliano Cancellieri, Ben Royall, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 94-104 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0120-7
We demonstrate the generation of a spatiotemporal optical continuum in a highly nonlinear exciton–polariton waveguide using extremely low excitation powers (2-ps, 100-W peak power pulses) and a submillimeter device suitable for integrated optics applications. We observe contributions from several mechanisms over a range of powers and demonstrate that the strong light–matter coupling significantly modifies the physics involved in all of them. The experimental data are well understood in combination with theoretical modeling. The results are applicable to a wide range of systems with linear coupling between nonlinear oscillators and particularly to emerging polariton devices that incorporate materials, such as gallium nitride and transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers that exhibit large light–matter coupling at room temperature. These open the door to low-power experimental studies of spatiotemporal nonlinear optics in submillimeter waveguide devices.
Tunable and enhanced light emission in hybrid WS2-optical-fiber-nanowire structures
Jin-hui Chen, Jun Tan, Guang-xing Wu, Xue-jin Zhang, Fei Xu, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 86-93 doi: 10.1038/s41377-018-0115-9
In recent years, the two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted renewed interest owing to their remarkable physical and chemical properties. Similar to that of graphene, the atomic thickness of TMDCs significantly limits their optoelectronic applications. In this study, we report a hybrid WS2-optical-fiber-nanowire (WOFN) structure for broadband enhancement of the light–matter interactions, i.e., light absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and second-harmonic generation (SHG), through evanescent field coupling. The interactions between the anisotropic light field of an optical fiber nanowire (OFN) and the anisotropic second-order susceptibility tensor of WS2 are systematically studied theoretically and experimentally. In particular, an efficient SHG in the WOFN appears to be 20 times larger than that in the same OFN before the WS2 integration under the same conditions. Moreover, we show that strain can efficiently manipulate the PL and SHG in the WOFN owing to the large configurability of the silica OFN. Our results demonstrate the potential applications of waveguide-coupled TMDCs structures for tunable high-performance photonic devices.
Direct observation of ultrafast plasmonic hot electron transfer in the strong coupling regime
Hangyong Shan, Ying Yu, Xingli Wang, Yang Luo, Shuai Zu, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 105-113 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0121-6
Achieving strong coupling between plasmonic oscillators can significantly modulate their intrinsic optical properties. Here, we report the direct observation of ultrafast plasmonic hot electron transfer from an Au grating array to an MoS2 monolayer in the strong coupling regime between localized surface plasmons (LSPs) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). By means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, the measured hot electron transfer time is approximately 40 fs with a maximum external quantum yield of 1.65%. Our results suggest that strong coupling between LSPs and SPPs has synergetic effects on the generation of plasmonic hot carriers, where SPPs with a unique nonradiative feature can act as an 'energy recycle bin' to reuse the radiative energy of LSPs and contribute to hot carrier generation. Coherent energy exchange between plasmonic modes in the strong coupling regime can further enhance the vertical electric field and promote the transfer of hot electrons between the Au grating and the MoS2 monolayer. Our proposed plasmonic strong coupling configuration overcomes the challenge associated with utilizing hot carriers and is instructive in terms of improving the performance of plasmonic opto-electronic devices.
Real-time high-resolution mid-infrared optical coherence tomography
Niels M. Israelsen, Christian R. Petersen, Ajanta Barh, Deepak Jain, Mikkel Jensen, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 114-126 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0122-5
The potential for improving the penetration depth of optical coherence tomography systems by using light sources with longer wavelengths has been known since the inception of the technique in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the development of mid-infrared optical coherence tomography has long been challenged by the maturity and fidelity of optical components in this spectral region, resulting in slow acquisition, low sensitivity, and poor axial resolution. In this work, a mid-infrared spectral-domain optical coherence tomography system operating at a central wavelength of 4 µm and an axial resolution of 8.6 µm is demonstrated. The system produces two-dimensional cross-sectional images in real time enabled by a high-brightness 0.9- to 4.7-µm mid-infrared supercontinuum source with a pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz for illumination and broadband upconversion of more than 1-µm bandwidth from 3.58–4.63 µm to 820–865 nm, where a standard 800-nm spectrometer can be used for fast detection. The images produced by the mid-infrared system are compared with those delivered by a state-of-the-art ultra-high-resolution near-infrared optical coherence tomography system operating at 1.3 μm, and the potential applications and samples suited for this technology are discussed. In doing so, the first practical mid-infrared optical coherence tomography system is demonstrated, with immediate applications in real-time non-destructive testing for the inspection of defects and thickness measurements in samples that exhibit strong scattering at shorter wavelengths.
Plasmon-induced dual-wavelength operation in a Yb3+ laser
Laura Sánchez-García, Mariola O. Ramírez, Rosa Maria Solé, Joan J. Carvajal, Francesc Díaz, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 127-135 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0125-2
Expanding the functionalities of plasmon-assisted lasers is essential for emergent applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Here, we report on a novel ability of plasmonic structures to induce dual-wavelength lasing in the near-infrared region in a Yb3+ solid-state laser. By means of the effects of disordered plasmonic networks deposited on the surface of a Yb3+-doped nonlinear RTP crystal, room-temperature dual-wavelength lasing, with a frequency difference between the lines in the THz range, is realized. The dual-wavelength laser is produced by the simultaneous activation of two lasing channels, namely, an electronic- and a phonon-terminated laser transition. The latter is enabled by the out-of-plane field components that are generated by the plasmonic structures, which excite specific Raman modes. Additionally, multiline radiation at three different wavelengths is demonstrated in the visible spectral region via two self-frequency conversion processes, which occur in the vicinities of the plasmonic structures. The results demonstrate the potential of plasmonic nanostructures for inducing drastic modifications in the operational mode of a solid-state laser and hold promise for applications in a variety of fields, including multiplexing, precise spectroscopies, and THz radiation generation via a simple and cost-effective procedure.
New strategy for designing orangish-red-emitting phosphor via oxygen-vacancy-induced electronic localization
Yi Wei, Gongcheng Xing, Kang Liu, Guogang Li, Peipei Dang, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 136-144 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0126-1
Phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes (pc-WLED) have been extensively employed as solid-state lighting sources, which have a very important role in people's daily lives. However, due to the scarcity of the red component, it is difficult to realize warm white light efficiently. Hence, red-emitting phosphors are urgently required for improving the illumination quality. In this work, we develop a novel orangish-red La4GeO8:Bi3+ phosphor, the emission peak of which is located at 600 nm under near-ultraviolet (n-UV) light excitation. The full width at half maximum (fwhm) is 103 nm, the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) exceeds 88%, and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) is 69%. According to Rietveld refinement analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, Bi3+ ions randomly occupy all La sites in orthorhombic La4GeO8. Importantly, the oxygen-vacancy-induced electronic localization around the Bi3+ ions is the main reason for the highly efficient orangish-red luminescence. These results provide a new perspective and insight from the local electron structure for designing inorganic phosphor materials that realize the unique luminescence performance of Bi3+ ions.
Efficient manipulations of circularly polarized terahertz waves with transmissive metasurfaces
Min Jia, Zhuo Wang, Heting Li, Xinke Wang, Weijie Luo, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 145-153 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0127-0
The unrestricted control of circularly polarized (CP) terahertz (THz) waves is important in science and applications, but conventional THz devices suffer from issues of bulky size and low efficiency. Although Pancharatnam–Berry (PB) metasurfaces have shown strong capabilities to control CP waves, transmission-mode PB devices realized in the THz regime are less efficient, limiting their applications in practice. Here, based on Jones matrix analysis, we design a tri-layer structure (thickness of ~λ/5) and experimentally demonstrate that the structure can serve as a highly efficient transmissive meta-atom (relative efficiency of ~90%) to build PB metadevices for manipulating CP THz waves. Two ultrathin THz metadevices are fabricated and experimentally characterized with a z-scan THz imaging system. The first device can realize a photonic spin Hall effect with an experimentally demonstrated relative efficiency of ~90%, whereas the second device can generate a high-quality background-free CP Bessel beam with measured longitudinal and transverse field patterns that exhibit the nondiffracting characteristics of a Bessel beam. All the experimental results are in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations. Our results pave the way to freely manipulate CP THz beams, laying a solid basis for future applications such as biomolecular control and THz signal transportation.
Gigantic electric-field-induced second harmonic generation from an organic conjugated polymer enhanced by a band-edge effect
Shumei Chen, King Fai Li, Guixin Li, Kok Wai Cheah, Shuang Zhang
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 154-159 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0128-z
Electric-field-induced second harmonic generation (EFISH), a third-order nonlinear process, arises from the interaction between the electric field of an external bias and that of two incident photons. EFISH can be used to dynamically control the nonlinear optical response of materials and is therefore promising for active nonlinear devices. However, it has been challenging to achieve a strong modulation with EFISH in conventional nonlinear materials. Here, we report a large tunability of an EFISH signal from a subwavelength-thick polymer film sandwiched between a transparent electrode and a metallic mirror. By exploiting the band-edge-enhanced third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the organic conjugated polymer, we successfully demonstrate a gigantic EFISH effect with a modulation ratio up to 422% V-1 at a pumping wavelength of 840 nm. The band-edge-enhanced EFISH opens new avenues for modulating the intensity of SHG signals and for controlling nonlinear electro-optic interactions in nanophotonic devices.
Quantitative imaging of the complexity in liquid bubbles' evolution reveals the dynamics of film retraction
Biagio Mandracchia, Zhe Wang, Vincenzo Ferraro, Massimiliano Maria Villone, Ernesto Di Maio, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 160-171 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0131-4
The dynamics and stability of thin liquid films have fascinated scientists over many decades. Thin film flows are central to numerous areas of engineering, geophysics, and biophysics and occur over a wide range of lengths, velocities, and liquid property scales. In spite of many significant developments in this area, we still lack appropriate quantitative experimental tools with the spatial and temporal resolution necessary for a comprehensive study of film evolution. We propose tackling this problem with a holographic technique that combines quantitative phase imaging with a custom setup designed to form and manipulate bubbles. The results, gathered on a model aqueous polymeric solution, provide unparalleled insight into bubble dynamics through the combination of a full-field thickness estimation, three-dimensional imaging, and a fast acquisition time. The unprecedented level of detail offered by the proposed methodology will promote a deeper understanding of the underlying physics of thin film dynamics.
In-plane coherent control of plasmon resonances for plasmonic switching and encoding
Liyong Jiang, Tingting Yin, Alexander M. Dubrovkin, Zhaogang Dong, Yuntian Chen, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 191-200 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0134-1
Considerable attention has been paid recently to coherent control of plasmon resonances in metadevices for potential applications in all-optical light-with-light signal modulation and image processing. Previous reports based on out-of-plane coherent control of plasmon resonances were established by modulating the position of a metadevice in standing waves. Here we show that destructive and constructive absorption can be realized in metallic nano-antennas through in-plane coherent control of plasmon resonances, which is determined by the distribution rule of electrical-field components of nano-antennas. We provide proof-of-principle demonstrations of plasmonic switching effects in a gold nanodisk monomer and dimer, and propose a plasmonic encoding strategy in a gold nanodisk chain. In-plane coherent control of plasmon resonances may open a new avenue toward promising applications in optical spectral enhancement, imaging, nanolasing, and optical communication in nanocircuits.
Implementation and security analysis of practical quantum secure direct communication
Ruoyang Qi, Zhen Sun, Zaisheng Lin, Penghao Niu, Wentao Hao, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 183-190 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3
Rapid development of supercomputers and the prospect of quantum computers are posing increasingly serious threats to the security of communication. Using the principles of quantum mechanics, quantum communication offers provable security of communication and is a promising solution to counter such threats. Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is one important branch of quantum communication. In contrast to other branches of quantum communication, it transmits secret information directly. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in proof-of-principle experimental demonstrations of QSDC. However, it remains a technical feat to bring QSDC into a practical application. Here, we report the implementation of a practical quantum secure communication system. The security is analyzed in the Wyner wiretap channel theory. The system uses a coding scheme of concatenation of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and works in a regime with a realistic environment of high noise and high loss. The present system operates with a repetition rate of 1 MHz at a distance of 1.5 kilometers. The secure communication rate is 50 bps, sufficient to effectively send text messages and reasonably sized files of images and sounds.
PhaseStain: the digital staining of label-free quantitative phase microscopy images using deep learning
Yair Rivenson, Tairan Liu, Zhensong Wei, Yibo Zhang, Kevin de Haan, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 172-182 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0129-y
Using a deep neural network, we demonstrate a digital staining technique, which we term PhaseStain, to transform the quantitative phase images (QPI) of label-free tissue sections into images that are equivalent to the brightfield microscopy images of the same samples that are histologically stained. Through pairs of image data (QPI and the corresponding brightfield images, acquired after staining), we train a generative adversarial network and demonstrate the effectiveness of this virtual-staining approach using sections of human skin, kidney, and liver tissue, matching the brightfield microscopy images of the same samples stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Jones' stain, and Masson's trichrome stain, respectively. This digital-staining framework may further strengthen various uses of label-free QPI techniques in pathology applications and biomedical research in general, by eliminating the need for histological staining, reducing sample preparation related costs and saving time. Our results provide a powerful example of some of the unique opportunities created by data-driven image transformations enabled by deep learning.
Spectral contrast optical coherence tomography angiography enables single-scan vessel imaging
James A. Winkelmann, Aya Eid, Graham Spicer, Luay M. Almassalha, The-Quyen Nguyen, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 13-21 doi: 10.1038/s41377-018-0117-7
Optical coherence tomography angiography relies on motion for contrast and requires at least two data acquisitions per pointwise scanning location. We present a method termed spectral contrast optical coherence tomography angiography using visible light that relies on the spectral signatures of blood for angiography from a single scan using endogenous contrast. We demonstrate the molecular sensitivity of this method, which enables lymphatic vessel, blood, and tissue discrimination.
Waterproof coatings for high-power laser cavities
Xinbin Cheng, Siyu Dong, Song Zhi, Sebastian Paschel, Istvan Balasa, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 29-34 doi: 10.1038/s41377-018-0118-6
With the ever-increasing laser power and repetition rate, thermal control of laser media is becoming increasingly important. Except for widely used air cooling or a bonded heat sink, water cooling of a laser medium is more effective in removing waste heat. However, how to protect deliquescent laser media from water erosion is a challenging issue. Here, novel waterproof coatings were proposed to shield Nd:Glass from water erosion. After clarifying the dependence of the waterproof property of single layers on their microstructures and pore characteristics, nanocomposites that dope SiO2 in HfO2 were synthesized using an ion-assisted co-evaporation process to solve the issue of a lack of a high-index material that simultaneously has a dense amorphous microstructure and wide bandgap. Hf0.7Si0.3O2/SiO2 multifunctional coatings were finally shown to possess an excellent waterproof property, high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) and good spectral performance, which can be used as the enabling components for thermal control in high-power laser cavities.
Large optical nonlinearity enabled by coupled metallic quantum wells
Haoliang Qian, Shilong Li, Ching-Fu Chen, Su-Wen Hsu, Steven Edward Bopp, et al.
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 22-28 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0123-4
New materials that exhibit strong second-order optical nonlinearities at a desired operational frequency are of paramount importance for nonlinear optics. Giant second-order susceptibility χ(2) has been obtained in semiconductor quantum wells (QWs). Unfortunately, the limited confining potential in semiconductor QWs causes formidable challenges in scaling such a scheme to the visible/near-infrared (NIR) frequencies for more vital nonlinear-optic applications. Here, we introduce a metal/dielectric heterostructured platform, i.e., TiN/Al2O3 epitaxial multilayers, to overcome that limitation. This platform has an extremely high χ(2) of approximately 1500 pm/V at NIR frequencies. By combining the aforementioned heterostructure with the large electric field enhancement afforded by a nanostructured metasurface, the power efficiency of second harmonic generation (SHG) achieved 10?4 at an incident pulse intensity of 10 GW/cm2, which is an improvement of several orders of magnitude compared to that of previous demonstrations from nonlinear surfaces at similar frequencies. The proposed quantum-engineered heterostructures enable efficient wave mixing at visible/NIR frequencies into ultracompact nonlinear optical devices.
News & Views
Going visible: high-resolution coherent Raman imaging of cells and tissues
Richard C. Prince, Eric O. Potma
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 9-10 doi: 10.1038/s41377-018-0119-5
A simple change of light source might prove what is needed for high-resolution label-free mapping of thin biological samples.
Gabor's holography at sea
Gabriel Popescu
Published. 2019, 8(1) : 11-12 doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0133-2