Review

Miniaturising artificial compound eyes based on advanced micronanofabrication techniques
Lin Zhu, Yong-Lai Zhang, Hong-Bo Sun
Published Published online: 01 March 2019 , doi: 10.37188/lam.2021.007
Compound eyes (CEs) are advanced optical visual systems with distinct features of large view-fields, infinite depth of field, and dynamic imaging capability, revealing their significant potential in applications including robot vision, unmanned aerial vehicle detection, and medical diagnosis. Compared with macroscopic CEs, which primarily comprise multicamera arrays, compact integrated CEs have garnered significant attention because of their portability and possibility of flexible integration with microrobots and in-vivo medical facilities. To date, considerable effort has been devoted to this field, in which manufacturing technologies are vital to the development of artificial CEs (ACEs) capable of large field-of-view imaging, depth information collection, and three-dimensional imaging. Challenges and opportunities exist for the practical application of advanced ACEs. This paper reviews state-of-the-art technologies for manufacturing ACEs, and then briefly summarises their potential applications in different fields. Finally, the current challenges and perspectives of ACEs are discussed.
Recent Progress in Heterogeneous III-V-on-Silicon Photonic Integration
Di Liang, John E. Bowers
Published Published online: 01 January 2021 , doi: 10.37188/lam.2021.005
Silicon (Si) photonics is a disruptive technology on the fast track to revolutionise integrated photonics. An indispensable branch thereof, heterogeneous Si integration, has also evolved from a science project 15 years ago to a growing business and compelling research field today. We focus on the scope of III-V compound semiconductors heterogeneously integrated on Si substrates. The commercial success of massively produced integrated optical transceivers based on first-generation innovation is discussed. Then, we review a number of technological breakthroughs at the component and platform levels. In addition to the numerous new device performance records, our emphasis is on the rationale behind and the design principles underlying specific examples of materials and device integration. Finally, we offer perspectives on development trends catering to the increasing demand in many existing and emerging applications.
Recent progress of skin-integrated electronics for intelligent sensing
Dengfeng Li, Kuanming Yao, Zhan Gao, Yiming Liu, Xinge Yu
Published Published online: 10 January 2021 , doi: 10.37188/lam.2021.004
Skin-integrated electronics are a novel type of wearable devices that are mounted on the skin for physiological signal sensing and healthcare monitoring. Their thin, soft, and excellent mechanical properties (stretching, bending, and twisting) allow non-irritating and conformal lamination on the human skin for multifunctional intelligent sensing in real time. In this review, we summarise the recent progress in the intelligent functions of skin-integrated electronics, including physiological sensing, sensory perception, as well as virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR). The detailed applications of these electronics include monitoring physical- and chemical-related health signals, detecting body motions, and serving as the artificial sensory components for visual-, auditory-, and tactile-based sensations. These skin-integrated systems contribute to the development of next-generation e-eyes, e-ears, and e-skin, with a particular focus on materials and structural designs. Research in multidisciplinary materials science, electrical engineering, mechanics, and biomedical engineering will lay a foundation for future improvement in this field of study.